The Effectiveness of Male-Targeted Sexual Assault Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis
In one national survey, it was found that of 5,446 female college students, 28.5% reported experiencing a completed or attempted sexual assault in their lifetimes, and 19% of them reported that they had experienced a completed or attempted sexual assault as a college student. (Krebs, Lindquist,Warner, Fisher, & Martin, 2007). In a sample of university men, 61% had committed a least one act of sexual violence and 15% had committed rape (Rapaport & Burkhart, 1984). Therefore, effective sexual assault prevention efforts targeted at men are needed, and several initiatives have been developed. The current study provides a meta-analytic investigation of male-targeted sexual assault prevention interventions. Of a total of 38 interventions, the vast majority of these studies (92.1%) was conducted on college or university campuses. Eligible studies were located from the following databases: PsycINFO, ERIC, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Dissertation Abstracts Online, Criminal Justice Abstracts, and reference sections of relevant articles. The weighted mean effect size for between-subjects studies of sexual assault attitudes showed improvement (d+ = -0.24, k = 25), and the effect was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The weighted mean effect size for between-subjects studies of future inclinations toward engaging in sexually aggressive behavior (d+ = -0.20, k = 13, p = 0.02) and toward engaging in sexual assault prevention behavior (d+ = 0.27, k = 10, p = 0.007) showed statistically significant improvements as well. However, the weighted mean effect sizes for between-subjects studies of rape empathy, sexual assault knowledge, sexual assault related attitudes, and sexual assault perpetration were non-significant. Moderator analyses tentatively suggested that empathy induction, Elaboration Likelihood Model utilization, and the Men’s Project were associated with stronger improvements in the sexual assault attitudes among men. However, there is significant room for growth, both in terms of practical applications and further research.